Tips to a profitable zero grazing enterprise

Many livestock farmers have raised enquiries about the best practices for a profitable zero grazing enterprise. Before dwelling on to this topic, livestock farmers should understand that zero grazing is not zero feeding.

Many farmers have incurred enormous costs in setting up zero grazing enterprises but have ended up failing miserably. Influential leaders have not been spared either. And all this is due to a lack of understanding of the pertinent requirements for a profitable zero grazing enterprise.

 

Zero grazing or stall feeding is basically confining dairy cattle in a stall and feeding them there.  There is minimum movement of cattle because they are not allowed to graze in the fields and thus the term zero grazing. Many smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya are embracing the zero grazing model of dairy production because of the many benefits accruing from it. Problems such as shortage of grazing land, low productivity of dairy cows, low quality fodder, prevalence of diseases and lack of money are dealt with in this system of dairy production.

The zero-grazing unit

Zero grazing unit side elevationCows are kept and fed inside the stall all year. The site where the unit is built determines the efficiency of operations throughout the zero grazing enterprise. It should be near as possible to the source of forage to reduce labor costs of carrying the cut grass to the cows and carrying manure back to the farm. Zero grazing requires an increased level of labor input, due to the need to cut grass daily. The time requirement is about 3 man hours/cow/day. Proximity to the homestead in relation to the biogas plant is also an important consideration.

The quality and quantity of construction material should be assessed thoroughly to determine the least possible cost while maintaining quality of the house. Quality materials which are locally available can greatly reduce costs. The cow shed must be functional, cheap and long lasting. The choice of an artisan is important because a lot of expensive material can be wasted by hiring a bad artisan. Note that the most expensively built stable is not always the best and most economical one.

Farmers are advised to use recommended zero grazing housing plans.

Improved dairy cattle breeds

In order to increase milk production you need to concentrate on fewer, better fed and better quality animals. Stock the units with dairy cows that have been bred specifically for their high milk yield. Important dairy breeds of cattle in Kenya for high-milk yield are Jersey, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Friesian and Sahiwal.

Maintain the dairy breeds by upgrading your stock through artificial insemination using proven dairy-bull semen. Selecting good cows and culling non performing ones coupled with good calf rearing for replacement stock should be an integral part of the system.

Adequate forage resource base  

Grassland management and flexibility are the keys to the effectiveness of this system. Planning ahead is critical to ensure there is always adequate forage available for the animals. Zero grazing can provide opportunities for herd expansion by increased forage utilization or through accessing land beyond cow walking distance for grazing. Think commercially and know the maximum forage production potential of your farm holding and the potential amount of off farm forage available to your herd in a given year. This will enable you to determine the maximum number of animals your zero grazing enterprise can support. The amount of forage, whether obtained within or outside the farm, is actually the single most resource that determines the number of cows or animals that can be sustained in the unit because.

  • In feeding the cows the forage to concentrate ratio cannot surpass 60:40 percent. A ratio of 70:30 is recommended.
  • Forages take time to establish as opposed to concentrates which can be purchased on demand.

Elephant (nappier) grass (penisetum puperum) grass is preferred as the main fodder crop because it has the advantage of being relatively easy to grow and re-grows rapidly after cutting. Other useful crops or grasses are fodder maize and fodder sorghum. Choose the most suitable fodder to your locality.

Replenish soil fertility by recycling all manure on the napier crop every 2 to 3 days. Apply 4 bags (@ 50 kg) of compound NPK fertilizer (20-10-10) per acre per year. This should also apply when establishing other kind of fodder. Harvest the mature napier grass after it has grown to 60-90cm in height. The aim should always be to produce the highest amount of dry matter (DM) per unit area of fodder grown.

Plant 0.75 - 1 acre of napier grass per mature cow and her offspring.  A daily intake of 75-100kg of fresh grass/cow can be achieved with good management to give a dry matter intake of 14-16kg/day. A fresh weight intake of 100kg/cow/day would be required for 15kg DM of grass.

Become skilled at producing and conserving feed for the dry season to ensure that milk production is maintained at a steady rate throughout the year. One of the greatest problems is providing good quality feed to the herd during the dry season. Dig a silage pit to store and preserve animal feed. Learn to store grass for use during the dry season by making your own Silage and Hay. The increased utilization of off farm fodder can allow for an increase of stocking rate on the farm. You can buy or rent more land for animal feed or purchase feed from neighbors.

 

Feeding

Cows fed to capacity on grasses alone have the potential to produce up to a maximum of 7 Kgfeeding dairy cows of milk per day. Additional milk is supported by concentrates. Keep in mind that it is pointless to feed supplements when forage requirements are not met.

Give concentrate supplement as the main source of energy and protein. Most farmers prefer giving dairy meal to the cows at milking time. Supplement at a rate of 1 kg for each 1.5 litres of milk the cow produces on top of the 7 Kg of milk contributed by grass. Other concentrates like sunflower seed cake, cotton seed cake and bran are available. For example farmers say that the use of brewer’s waste as a feeding supplement, ad lib, increases milk production by 7 litres per day.

Fodder legumes constitute an additional source of protein. Fodder trees such as Leucaena spp., Calliandra spp, and Sesbania spp, are used to increase the protein content of the herd’s diet.

But the most important thing is to have your ration formula right. Ration formulation is a complex process and any farmer cannot just do it. You will need the skills of a qualified professional to come up with the right mixture of the feeds available to your cows. Invest in a chaff-cutter to mill crop residues for feed so that nothing goes to waste. Cows must have adequate feeding space, and wastage must be monitored, to ensure feed intake is maximized. Wastage should be less than 5%, and refused material must be removed from the feeding area daily, as this will decompose rapidly.

Innovative livestock farmers have come up with home-mix dairy rations. An example composition of a 100 kg of home-mix dairy ration is 40 kg sunflower cake, 40 kg maize grain, 10 kg sorghum, 5 kg soya beans and 5 kg dried cassava chips. The mixture is dried and milled. Farmers who use this home-mix state that they get twice as much milk from their home mix as they do for the same amount of purchased commercial dairy meal

Mineral salt lick should be offered to the cattle ad lib in the mineral box. Water should be available throughout the day as it makes the bulk of the milk.

Stable manure production

Manure should be treated carefully to reap maximum benefit from it. Manure contain high content of organic matter and minerals which improve soil fertility therefore forage yields and is source of material for biogas production. Cover the manure pit to prevent nitrogen losses.

One cow can produce up to 20 tons of compost per year depending on availability of crop residues. 20 tons of compost contains approximately 80 kg of nitrogen, 40 kg of phosphate and 10 kg of potash. If valued against current fertilizer prices this composition is valued at Kshs. 2000.

The manure produced from 3 cows is sufficient to produce the amount of gas needed for cooking and lighting in the farm.


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gabriel
-1 # gabriel 2011-10-24 10:08
excellent material and presented in a simple manner.
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Geoffrey koske
-1 # Geoffrey koske 2012-08-22 21:30
This is great information.Where do i get more of this?Are there farms to be visited to get a practical feel of this.
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Sam Owen
-2 # Sam Owen 2014-03-11 12:15
Geoff, If you require VGC second hand diet feeders please drop us an email. Excellent when used with zero grazing.

Regards,

Sam Owen.
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shadrach mogire
+1 # shadrach mogire 2011-11-07 15:47
this is good work
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Juliet
+3 # Juliet 2011-11-22 14:08
Im starting up as a commercial dairy farmer & this infomation is great. please keep up the good work.
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Carole Mugo
+1 # Carole Mugo 2011-12-03 09:49
I want to start commercial dairy farming and your information is great and so helpful.
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koskei john
+5 # koskei john 2012-02-08 13:40
send me a physical plan for three cows and a calves pens inclusively for a small scale farmer.
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mahony
0 # mahony 2012-03-25 17:23
hello there - I looking for info regarding modern and new technical of livestock rearing and where I can actual purchase cows for the purpose of starting a commercial milk production business - thanks a lot
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Menya Mwambeu
-1 # Menya Mwambeu 2012-03-25 17:38
I am interested in starting a small scale dairy farming,in the second quarter of this year. Kindly give me the possible financial implication for a starter and the trainings available for starters.
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Malakwen GL
-5 # Malakwen GL 2012-03-29 15:15
Very useful information. Am interested in starting in dairy or beef farming in small acreage within the next two years. I would appreciation more information before start up.
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Carole Mugo
0 # Carole Mugo 2012-05-04 09:21
I wish to spend some time in a farm and learn more about zero grazing. Could you kindly advise of any place near Nairobi I can go. You are doing a tremendous job.
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yusuf
-1 # yusuf 2012-08-15 14:02
Hi carole there is a very good farm to visit in kasarani mwiki area just visit the agricultural officers office of kasarani and you will be directed there
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Njomo
+2 # Njomo 2012-05-04 15:07
Hi,

I am very much interested in dairy farming and no doubt, the information available in your site is very helpful. How many cows can I confortably keep on a one acre piece of land? Financial implication/start up capital? Do you train people? I would appreciate hearing from you.
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joseph murei
+1 # joseph murei 2012-05-09 17:42
Need articles on dairy production
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tony
0 # tony 2012-05-27 23:51
hie.wonderful job and always congratulations.i need structural information for 30 cows.kindly include structures photos and drainage system.am really interested in dairy farming very soon.
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suge
+1 # suge 2012-05-28 23:25
I AM GRATEFUL FOR THESE USEFUL INFORMATION.HAVE BOUGHT MATERIALS FOR BUILDING THE UNIT AND WANT TO START WITH 5 COWS.YOUR ADVICE IS OF GREAT VALUE.THANKS
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Njosh
-1 # Njosh 2012-06-06 16:09
Who needs to know the correct ratios to make quality dairy meal?
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yusuf
-2 # yusuf 2012-08-15 14:14
HI AM YUSUF

Am also intrested in knowing the numbere of cows in relation to the size of land
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Barigye Byogamba Didas
0 # Barigye Byogamba Didas 2014-12-15 13:39
Hi
thanks a lot for availing us in information.
am starting up a commercial farming
could you please send me the mixing ratio
and plan for the structure .
Thanks
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elyene
-2 # elyene 2012-06-20 16:50
WANT TO LEARN MORE ON DAIRY FARMING COZ I WANT TO TRY IT WITH TWO COWS AND WILL APPRECIATE ANY HELP FROM YOU ON HOW TO GO ABOUT IT
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Charles Njoroge
+3 # Charles Njoroge 2012-06-22 07:52
Elyene you can reach me on 0720-833506.I will give you more information in terms of feeding, mixing your own livestock feeds and care. Feel free to talk to me. Knowledge is power.

Thanks
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Haroun Wandalo
0 # Haroun Wandalo 2012-07-26 12:02
hi. brother.
I really do need this info, please assist me with it and may Almighty God bless you very much
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Jack N
-1 # Jack N 2012-08-27 12:21
hi Charles,
i would really appreciate getting to know tips of how to increase my cows productivity and also mixing my own feed.
can reach me on
regards
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Jacky
0 # Jacky 2012-10-08 13:17
Hi Charles, I would also be interested in information regarding livestock feed. My email address is . Thanks
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Jackson
-1 # Jackson 2012-12-15 19:06
@ Charles. Pls also keep me posted on this valuable info on mixing the feeds at mjahkoh[at]yahoo[dot com] or 0726434552
Regards
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Aggrey Kankunda
0 # Aggrey Kankunda 2012-07-02 08:40
Excellent info, practical and appropriate to our African context.
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Omaido wilson
+1 # Omaido wilson 2012-07-26 15:00
Very useful information indeed.
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Peter Gichuku
-1 # Peter Gichuku 2012-08-15 15:18
HI,GUYS,

COME AND LEARN HOW TO GROW VERY NUTRITIOUS YET COST EFFECTIVE HYDROPONICS FODDER.HYDROPONICS FODDER TAKES 9 DAYS TO MATURE,IT REQUIRES A SIMPLE GROWING ROOM,SEEDS,TRAYS,CLEAN WATER AND FERTILIZER.

INCREASE MILK PRODUCTION BY 18%,LIVE WEIGHT GAIN FOR BEEF CATTLE 1.7KG PER DAY...AND MORE.

CALL 0722956647
WWW.FORMULATIONGOODS.KBO.CO.KE
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Wairimu
+2 # Wairimu 2012-08-15 15:47
I am a dairy farmer and this information is very useful. Keep up!
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jacky
0 # jacky 2012-09-11 10:24
Great article. Really helpful. Anyone interested in commercial dairy farming, I can send you a contact of person in Murang'a. He is a small scale farmer with a capacity of 150litres daily. You can send me your email address.
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azil yusuf
0 # azil yusuf 2012-09-12 11:59
Hi jacky i will appreciate a visit to the farm my email address is phone number 0722732889
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James Chege
0 # James Chege 2012-10-10 10:40
Please send the Muranga farmer contact details to . Thanks!
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catherine
0 # catherine 2012-10-26 12:19
hi jackie
kindly send me the contact
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Jacky
-1 # Jacky 2012-10-30 11:59
Hi Catherine, his name is Ngaru call him on 0721214709
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monny
0 # monny 2013-01-03 09:43
please jacky give me the contacts of the guy. I have started a zero grazing farm and need all the info I can get.
Thanks,
Njeri
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azi
0 # azi 2013-01-22 12:04
hello sir's
my name is azi,i'm from ethiopia and i would like to start animal farm,i mean dairy.please help me with any information you know.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH.
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jeremiah nkomo opeko
0 # jeremiah nkomo opeko 2012-09-11 19:26
i am interested in venturing into commercial farming in emuhaya in vihiga county. i would wish to find out where i can visit for advice, which breed is good here and how we can find a market for our milk.i would also wish to network with like minded individuals who can assist me in starting up, technical advice and wher to get good breeds. your feature is wonderful. keep it up.
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suzzie
0 # suzzie 2012-09-30 14:53
hi Jacky,
please assist me with the contacts of the commercial dairy farmer from Muranga ......I'm from Mrg and thus he'd be of great help.....I intend to start a small scale dairy project in 6 months time
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suzzie
0 # suzzie 2012-09-30 14:56
@ Jacky,
my email address is ....
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Apollo S Kabiru
+2 # Apollo S Kabiru 2012-10-02 19:02
Thank you very much for the good Daily Farming information. I am already in Daily farming with fifteen daily cows. Wonderful business!
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Ludovick Kezzah
0 # Ludovick Kezzah 2012-10-03 16:44
Very useful information indeed, presented in simple understandable form. God bless you.
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Jacky
-1 # Jacky 2012-10-05 09:32
Hallo. I would suggest to anybody interested in dairy farming and other types of farming to visit the Nairobi International Trade Fair, if possible. I found it to be very informative.
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Aggrey Kankunda
0 # Aggrey Kankunda 2012-10-05 11:17
When you visit the Trade Fair, please look out for Mr. Henry Musaviri of MolaPlus Investments (0722656142). Great info on how to boost your cows' milk yield using some of his products and other innovative ideas.
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korede Odufuye
0 # korede Odufuye 2013-12-04 14:25
Hello, I trust this mail finds you well.

I a a young Enterprenuer from Nigeria with interest in commercial diary farm. I would like to have an information. and will like to talk to someone about it.

Kindly revert as soon as possible.

Regards,
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Yusuf
-1 # Yusuf 2012-10-08 09:56
Hi farmers there was good ways of adding value to your silage making it palatable to the cows resulting in good milk production in the Show Bravo to Mr Henry
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Jacky
-1 # Jacky 2012-10-08 13:20
Henry Musaviri and his team from Molaplus are also available to conduct training on dairy to any number of group of people. Their rates are very fair and they offer very sound and practical advice.
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Naom
0 # Naom 2012-10-08 22:15
I want to buy two cows for commercial mild production,plz advice on the right feeds and correct ration.thax
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Jacky
0 # Jacky 2012-10-09 11:14
#Naom Check out livestockkenya.com/.../... found on this website. Also contact the people of molaplus that someone had talked about on this forum.
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Jacky
-1 # Jacky 2012-10-10 11:11
Join the farming kenya group on facebook. They organise field visits to dairy farmers
I herd of 40 (12 milking), and averaging 300 litres of milk per day.

Date: 13th October 2012: This is an information and knowledge visit
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Wol
0 # Wol 2012-10-24 17:35
I am from Bungoma county-in Kanduyi. I would like your advice on which breed of cow is suitable in that place, where i can buy 1 or 2 and the structure for two cows and calve pen
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SOLOMON FWAMBA
-1 # SOLOMON FWAMBA 2012-11-21 16:50
How do yuo manage the cases of calf pneumonia? Your response will be highly appreciated.
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Jacky
0 # Jacky 2013-01-03 16:55
Again, I urge you all to join the Farming Kenya group on facebook. There are great tips on farming not only dairy. It is such a wonderful wonderful resource and knowledge centre. All the info there is free.
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Jacky
0 # Jacky 2013-01-08 10:54
Hi, there is a trip organised to Giwa Farm in Gachie on 19th Jan 9am-2pm. Giwa farm has a herd of 40 cows, milking over 300 litres per day. Charges r 500 for a group less than 20 and 300 for a group of more than 20. Please share with other interested people. We grow more when we learn together.
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charles nderitu wagura
+1 # charles nderitu wagura 2013-01-14 18:13
Iam very happy about the material on dairy farming.my self i have a small dairy farm which is one year old and i am totally in agreement with what i have gone through
i have three cows and iam milking one with an average of 18litres per day.i hope iwill succeed in this venture.
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charles nderitu wagura
0 # charles nderitu wagura 2013-01-14 18:15
notify me on follow-up comments
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musa
0 # musa 2013-01-21 15:05
great read there and guide
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vigilance
0 # vigilance 2013-01-30 16:57
just want to begin dairy farming the starting point
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Jacky
+1 # Jacky 2013-01-31 16:53
vigilance, there is this group on facebook that has such a wide resource on dairy farming as well as established and new dairy farmers you can visit.I highly advise you to check it out.
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Samuel Taban J Kilombe
0 # Samuel Taban J Kilombe 2013-02-26 15:58
I am a farmer in South Sudan planning to start a Zero Grazing Milk Production Unit. Please send me the plan for two cows.
Regards
Samuel Taban J KIlombe
,
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mathayoh
-1 # mathayoh 2013-04-14 15:54
Zero grazing plan
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nick tallam
0 # nick tallam 2013-07-25 18:12
Great information I would to know more feeds.
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chemutai maritim
0 # chemutai maritim 2013-11-21 17:07
i would like to start a zero grazing farming in 80x100 plot please advice on where to start.
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chemutai maritim
0 # chemutai maritim 2013-11-21 17:12
i would like to start zero grazing of one dairy cow in 80x100 plot with a house. Please advice on where to start.
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kiprono ngetich
+2 # kiprono ngetich 2014-02-23 13:01
please send i would like to request for business plan for 3 cows,staying in 30x100 plot
thanks
looking forward for you reply
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Janet Mwamatu
0 # Janet Mwamatu 2014-03-12 10:52
I want to start dairy farming on a 1ha. please advice.
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Sam Owen
0 # Sam Owen 2014-03-12 13:48
With small numbers of dairy cattle you need to pool your resources and work together. I would suggest getting 30-40 cows together and running them as one group.

Feed - various feed (ingredients) can then be mixed together to make a ration. Maize, corn, grass, hay, wheat, barley, oats, soya, canola/rape, rice, palm meal, bread, bakery waste, palm leaves. Mixing can be completed with shovels or by hand. Each mouthful the cow eats want to be the same. Cut material to about 2 inches 5cm in length.

Have fun!
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seo in lahore
0 # seo in lahore 2014-09-18 03:53
Hey there! This is kind of off topic but I need
some guidance from an established blog. Is it very
difficult to set up your own blog? I'm not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty quick.

I'm thinking about making my own but I'm not sure where to begin. Do you have any ideas or suggestions?

With thanks
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Shadrach Mogire
0 # Shadrach Mogire 2015-06-11 16:07
I am eager to start a small scale dairy farming. But I lack knowledge on feed formulation, best dairy breed, size of land required, housing plan of zero grazing house, rearing of calves, best feed, etc.
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kevoh
0 # kevoh 2015-07-07 10:30
please do email me on comprehensive plan on dairy farming-5 cows,,plus the structure,,feeds,,and estimated costs,,and more importantly, the breeds i should get and from where,,,please please do assist,,Thank You
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Orlando
0 # Orlando 2015-09-22 03:11
An interesting discussion is definitely worth comment. I do think that you should publish more on this subject,
it might not be a taboo subject but usually people do not discuss these subjects.
To the next! Best wishes!!
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sarah
0 # sarah 2015-11-25 21:08
need help to boost milk production in uganda and good breed of cows
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In order to develop potential shoppers, more and more trade companies join in opening online stores.
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Christine mueni
0 # Christine mueni 2016-07-15 20:01
Excellent. Good explanation in the most simple and easy manner
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Gilbert kiprotich
0 # Gilbert kiprotich 2016-09-08 19:50
Big up guys, Now I know
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