In the design of piggery unit, the physiological requirements of the pig and practical of requirements of the worker are considered.
Pigs prefer to rest most of the time hence the need for a good resting place. The resting place should be dry, clean and provide protection from cold, heat and rain.
There are many recommendations regarding resting space requirement. A single fully grown pig has varying length between five to six feet from snout to the root of the tail. Consequently the minimum requirement for the pig will be 7-8 feet on both sides. However, the requirement of resting place for one pig while resting is only about 5 X 2 ft space. This makes it possible for one to keep three to four pigs in the space actually required for one full grown pig. However, the actual size of the resting place should be in consonance with .the feeding and exercising space.
Feeding space includes the space for feed as well as for watering. Every growing or grown up pig requires a separate feeder, although water can be common. The size of each feeder on the inner side should be 12" X 12" X 6" length, width and height, respectively. The height of the feeder may be reduced by one or two inches for smaller pigs. The size of the waterer is the same as for the feeder. Several feeders and waterers can be constructed together in a line with 4"-6" thick partitions. The number of partition will be one less than the total number of feeders and waterers. On the basis of these, we can calculate the total feeding and watering length' required for any number of pigs one wants to keep in, one room. This is further clarified by following example.
To keep 6 growers, six feeders and one waterer are required (total seven troughs with 6 partitions). If the thickness of the partition is maintained at 4", we require 9ft (7 + 4" x 6) feeding space, whereas if thickness kept is 6" then we require 10ft feeding space. The second side of the feeding area will require at least 6ft space for the pig to stand and eat comfortably. The feeding area should be dry, clean and easily cleanable.
Dunging and exercising space
This area should be the same as the feeding area in the indoor system. But in the combination system it could be at least double the space of resting area.
There should be facilities for proper drainage from the resting, eating and dunging space into a common drain.
Waste disposal space
The surrounding of the piggery should be kept clean therefore it is necessary to have proper waste disposal place. Two rectangular pits or boxes of 10' x 8' x 6' will be sufficient for about 50-75 grown up pigs. The dung and other wastes are dumped into one pit at a time. When one is filled, start filling the other. By the time the second is full, the contents of the first pit will be fully decomposed and can be used as manure. Any waste except polythene papers, metal, glasses, stones and hard wooden pieces, can be placed in these pits. The decomposition takes place within 5 to 6 months time. Hence the size of pits should be such that it should take about 6 months to fill.
A full grown or growing pig requires about 2 kg of feed per day. Based on this, the requirement of feed can be estimated per day for all the pigs. If feed is not purchased on a monthly basis the store should be sufficiently big enough to store at least four months feed.
Various records on feeding, breeding, production, etc, should be maintained even in a small piggery if one wants to run it economically. In a small piggery, recording facilities would mean few recording registers and a small shelf to keep them safely. In a commercial pig farm, it may mean even a computerized record keeping room and other facilities including staff.
Space for equipments and tools
Proper equipments and implements are required for cleaning, watering, preparing feed, feeding, disinfecting, slaughtering, etc. They should be maintained in a proper and convenient condition for use. The size of this place will vary with the size of piggery.
Space for first aid and medicines
All piggeries should have essential medicines and first aid facilities. In small piggery, a small shelf with essential items will be sufficient, whereas in a big commercial piggery a full fledged infirmary or hospital with staff may be required.
Butchering and weighing space
If pigs are sold as pork, there should be a place to slaughter them with minimum efforts and without disturbing other pigs in the piggery. Weighing of pigs is done periodically to maintain the growth record. The slaughter area should be kept clean and dry.
In commercial and large farms, proper office facilities are required for carrying out various kinds of transactions. In a small piggery, office facilities can be combined with storage, recording equipments, tools and medical items.